The post-treatment assessment found a total of 154 reserved trees, 77 were red pine and 77 were white pine. This was an average of 6.7 reserved trees per acre. A few seed trees were knocked over (uprooted) by a windstorm that came through on June 30, 2004.
The competition control herbicide treatment was conducted on August 16, 2005. It used a skidder-mounted sprayer to apply Cornerstone (active ingredient of glyphosate) at a rate of 0.375 gallons per acre.
A June 2006 regeneration survey by undergraduate seasonal staff using 20 1/100-acre plots found total regeneration to be 1595 seedlings per acre. Red and white pine represented 6 and 9% of regeneration, respectively, in this survey. Red maple and balsam fir represented the bulk of the regeneration at 47% and 24%, respectively. This assessment suggested only 6% of planted red pines survived. The author is skeptical of these results given present-day regeneration numbers (see below) and the systematic arrangement of red pine, which suggests they were of planted origin. He suspects a combination of the inexperienced surveyors and the young pine might have caused the pine to be overlooked during the sample.
The author recalls sampling this stand during the UMN Advanced Field Session Resource Assessment class during May 2013. Anecdotally, he recalls sampling a rough 50-50 mix of pines and hardwoods and that the pines were typically knee height and below. Unfortunately, those and most of the survey results from a majority of other classes to sample over the years were not kept.
A regeneration survey using 29 1/500-acre circular plots was conducted in 2018 by students which found 100% stocking and an average of 4236 seedlings per acre (Coefficient of variation = 73%). See the table below for regeneration by species.
||Seedlings per acre
||Coefficient of variation (%)
|Other conifers (balsam fir, white spruce, and Scots pine)
|Other hardwoods (mostly paper birch with some northern red oaks)
The relatively high number of species and coefficient of variations suggests relatively both a heterogeneous composition and variable spatial arrangement of seedlings.
During the fall of 2018, we collaborated with the American Bird Conservancy to conduct an early-successional habitat extension treatment on the eastern half of the stand. The goal was to promote horizontal and vertical heterogeneity of desired tree species. This consisted of a crop-tree release treatment with brushsaws. The prioritization list of species to be released included red pine, white pine, northern red oak, white spruce, paper birch, and red maple. Photos from the time of treatment suggest that a majority of trees were between 1-4 inches DBH and 8-12 feet tall.