Snaptail Lake Underplanting (UPM Blandin)

State or Province
Nearest city or town
Bovey, Minnesota
Describe the location
N1/2, SE1/4, sect.34, T58N, R24W
Blandin Paper Company
Cover type
Plant community detail and growth stage
AbArAo/AbFnAu (FDn43/MHn44) See supplemental docs for plant community descriptions.
Forest health threats
Adaptive silviculture options
Silviculture system
Estimated year of stand origin
Site index
70 ft
for species
Brief silvicultural objective
Regenerate aspen and increase conifer component to create an even-aged, structurally diverse mixedwood stand.
Site preparation method
Soil texture
Soil details
Well drained loamy sand.
Stand area
65 acres
Treatment area
65 acres

47.464404, -93.367368


The goal is to establish a mixedwood stand dominated by aspen, white spruce, and balsam fir with minimal site preparation and release costs. The stand is managed to maintain a healthy, diverse forest that provides timber production, wildlife habitat, and social benefits through the use of ecologically based silviculture emphasized through Blandin’s SmartForestrysm forest management style which employs the use of habitat types (analogous to MN DNR native plant communities) to imitate and work with natural stand processes. 

Pre-treatment stand description and condition

Stand establishment and management history: 

Prior to treatment the area was made up of 36 year old aspen with components of balsam fir, and white spruce in good condition. Some small areas of older (80 y.o.) aspen and white pine were present.  Understory was patchy hazel and alder, with very little advance conifer regeneration. 

Silviculture Prescription

The goal was to convert a nearly pure aspen stand into a mixedwood condition with increased species and structural diversity through the use of commercial thinning and underplanting of white spruce, followed by an overstory removal of the residual aspen after planted conifer is well established. 

What actually happened during the treatment

In June 2006 the area was harvested with a cut-to-length system. The area was commercially thinned from below to a residual basal area of 60 to 65 sq. ft. and produced approximately 10 cords/acre. The residual overstory is intended to provide shading and frost protection to the planted seedlings. In addition, the overstory aspen suppresses the suckering of aspen through hormonal control. 

Figure 1: Structure and composition of a boreal mixedwood underplanting trial on UPM Blandin Land prior to final overstory removal.

The following spring (2007) the area was underplanted with containerized stock of white spruce at a density of 400 seedlings/acre. In September of the same year a chemical release was applied to control hazel using 1.5 qt/acre Accord and 1 qt/acre Garlon. This chemical release would likely be unnecessary on sites with less hazel.

Figure 2: Structure and composition of a boreal mixedwood underplanting trial on UPM Blandin Land prior to overstory removal.

Post-treatment assessment

In the fall of 2016, ten years after the initial harvest, an evaluation of the residual overstory and regeneration indicated establishment of a mixed stand (table 1) with abundant conifer and hardwood regeneration present (table 2). Planted white spruce are well established with heights ranging from 5-10’, and substantial advance regeneration of balsam fir, white spruce, and white pine is present (table 2).

Table 1: Overstory basal area composition of the treatment stand.

Table showing mixed regeneration establishment.

Table 2: Pre-treatment regeneration composition of the treatment stand.

Regeneration composition of a boreal mixedwood underplanting trial.

Figure 3: Healthy 10 Year old white spruce sapling in the understory of an underplanted boreal mixedwood stand on UPM Blandin Land.

A nearby stand (SE1/4, NW1/4, sect. 3, T58N, R24W) has received a similar treatment but has had the overstory removed already, regeneration composition in that stand can be seen in table 3.

Table 3: Regeneration composition of a nearby stand.

Regeneration composition of a boreal mixedwood underplanting trial.

Figure 4: A nearby stand (SE1/4, NW1/4, sect. 3, T58N, R24W) which has received similar prescription, 3 years after final overstory removal.

Plans for future treatments

The stand has been scheduled for overstory removal to occur within the next 2 years to release planted conifer and regenerate the aspen. All aspen, as well as 3+ stick spruce and fir will be removed and is expected to yield 15 cords/acre.  Approximately 3 acres will be left with the overstory intact for comparison and will serve as an older forest refuge in the stand. 

This case study was developed with support from the United States Department of Agriculture's National Institute for Food and Agriculture (USDA-NIFA), Renewable Resources Extension Act (RREA). Project #MIN-44-E02, principal investigator Eli Sagor, University of Minnesota.