Cases by Forest Health Threat

46.70457, -92.534821
Study of ecological and stand dynamics changes after a single thinning from below
46.680888, -92.51399
To regenerate paper birch
46.179199, -90.464984
Regenerate northern hardwoods species to maintain the northern hardwoods covertype.
44.965049, -89.64189
Stop the below-ground spread of an active oak wilt pocket in order to maintain oaks into the future.
44.108, -91.988
Regenerate a mature red oak stand to a young stand of similar composition, comparing clearcut and shelterwood methods.
44.1795, -91.9163
Regenerate a mature red oak stand to a young stand of similar composition.
46.04432, -93.56044
Establish oak regeneration while comparing several different silvicultural strategies and techniques.
46.001667, -90.338583
Introduce more structure into the stand and convert it to an uneven-aged stand.
43.626735, -91.304481
Regenerate a mature oak stand to a young stand of similar composition.
47.041534, -94.334
Bolster oak regeneration on a stand with poor natural regeneration and heavy competition, after first cut in two cut shelterwood harvest.
47.565127, -94.076095
Test silvicultural systems that adapt red pine forests to anticipated changes in climate and disturbance regime.
43.691501, -91.899567
Establish a mixed hardwood forest with strong oak and black walnut components on a former agricultural field.
46.804319, -84.10466
Thin stands of overstocked birch pole-sized regeneration to maximize stem growth and quality development
47.753564, -92.586092
Harvest the mature Aspen before it deteriorates and loses commercial value, while increasing diversity to push for a more resilient stand.
47.210716, -93.416667
Aspen timber sale on county land by a private contract with a logger. Enhance wildlife habitat for ruffed grouse.
47.095924, -93.58099
Create a young stand of quaking aspen enriched with long-lived conifers including: white pine, white spruce, and white cedar
46.86377, -94.71895
Test the hypothesis that retaining a live seed source on a FDc23 jack pine harvest site will result in adequate natural jack pine regeneration.
46.446049, -91.51028
Regenerate a vigorous stand of jack pine that will be managed on a 48-year rotation in order to achieve timber production objectives as well as Pine Barrens ecological/wildlife objectives within Wisconsin’s Northwest Sands Landscape.
48.244194, -93.84375
Regenerate an even-aged stand of merchantable timber that is dominated by jack pine.
46.047033, -92.432486
Increase recruitment success of oak seedlings/saplings into larger size classes to ensure the species is a co-dominant/dominant species in the next mature stand.
46.380167, -93.406167
Two step shelterwood harvest to encourage red oak, basswood, birch regeneration.
46.822, -93.675
To use a two-step shelterwood harvest in a mature northern hardwood stand with the objective of increasing the oak component of the future mixed hardwood stand.
44.06028, -91.97694
Retain oak and walnut in the future mesic hardwood stand and minimize loss of plant diversity due to timber harvesting in a MHs39b plant community.
47.5043, -91.9072
Increase stand resilience by increasing species diversity (promoting cool climate-dependent tree species) and structural complexity following a commercial timber harvest.
47.362925, -91.043965
Increase stand resilience by increasing species diversity (promoting cool climate-dependent tree species) and structural complexity through brush control site preparation and artificial regeneration (conifer planting).
47.103709, -91.572081
Enhance current and future species diversity and structural complexity by ensuring successful tree recruitment into sapling/small tree size classes currently absent from the stand.
43.846417, -92.18994
Use a prescribed burn followed by direct seeding to return a reed canary grass area to bottomland hardwood.
46.11981, -90.423044
Manage Pennsylvania sedge and ironwood in order to facilitate northern hardwood regeneration.
44.869536, -88.904822
To begin conversion of an even-aged sawtimber sized northern hardwood stand to an uneven-aged northern hardwood stand by reducing the basal area to 70-90 ft2/acre (16-21 m2/ha) to promote another age class.
43.634511, -91.499047
Convert agricultural land to new Central Hardwoods stand.
43.842362, -92.18504
To return areas with dense reed canary grass to bottomland hardwood forests.
46.696065, -92.537739
Demonstrate the results of thinning from below (light), selection (from the top), and thinning from above (heavy crown thinning).
46.101808, -92.481827
To use a two-cut shelterwood system with deer browse protection (exclosures) to maintain northern red oak as a component of Central Dry-Mesic Oak-Aspen-Red Maple Forest
47.025792, -91.677812
To determine long-term trends in forest vegetation by installing fencing treatments.
46.1269, -92.7429
Regenerate a mature stand of aspen to a young stand of similar composition while reducing the future spread of buckthorn.
48.341648, -93.705259
This project's objective was to provide a readily accessible demonstration site to observe the operational challenges of managing dwarf mistletoe infested black spruce stands.
48.467429, -93.521118
Monitor the spread of dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium pusillum, within the stand
46.373684, -92.801131
Assess effectiveness of Velpar treatment to control understory competition in preparation for establishing natural red pine regeneration under a mature red pine canopy.
47.547518, -93.374005
Introduce conifer species into a stand previously composed of almost pure aspen.
45.398925, -93.712896
Reduce buckthorn and other shrub competition and establish planted red pine seedlings in a recently harvested oak stand transitioning to oak-pine mixed species stand
47.379596, -94.61931
Increase resilience of black ash stands threatened by emerald ash borer (EAB) through regeneration harvests aimed at increasing representation of non-ash species.
46.323033, -92.791008
Establish a fully stocked red pine stand from natural regeneration.
48.261111, -93.755583
Reforest a healthy black spruce even-aged stand that is 95% stocked at 1500 trees per acre after a clearcut.
47.73948, -92.0903
Manage for future productive timber land and to provide forage and habitat for a wide variety of wildlife species by managing for diversity.
46.703, -92.525
To lower stand density in a spatially heterogeneous fashion, reduce fuel-loading in a mature stand by disconnecting foliage between the canopy and sub-canopy, and increase aesthetic appeal of a multi-aged red pine stand.
48.027063, -94.15836
Increase white/red pine, decrease aspen
46.645463, -92.666523
The objective is to perpetuate red oak and mid-tolerant northern hardwoods on the site.
44.5806, -92.6123
Regenerate a mature lowland hardwoods stand to a young stand of similar composition.
44.621295, -92.66885
Regenerate a mature lowland hardwoods stand to a young stand of similar composition.
46.681857, -92.572386
Regenerate aspen while retaining ruffed grouse habitat needs.
46.794804, -92.824755
The objective of this sale is to perpetuate the northern hardwood composition of the stand, retaining some species diversity on the landscape. Secondarily, we will provide a diversity of harvest species for operators and smaller mills.
46.121399, -94.011644
Regenerate a mature ash stand to a more diverse young stand in order to maintain a forested condition, considering imminent invasion by emerald ash borer (EAB) and anticipated climate change impacts on a very wet site.
43.735967, -91.872526
Regenerate a mature oak stand to a young stand of similar composition.
47.216049, -93.648893
Establish a de novo stand of hybrid aspen using ‘dense pack’ plantings and precommercial shearing to promote suckering.
47.258759, -93.16978
Regenerate spruce and aspen in mixed stand for future commercial harvests
44.212176, -91.921667
Keep the site forested and increase resilience by improving diversity and removing invasive species.
46.705391, -92.542747
Clearcut red pine overstory and reinitiate even-aged, early-successional community while observing the effects of different skidding, processing, and biomass retention treatments on artificial and natural jack pine regeneration.
47.243333, -92.01083
To successfully regenerate the stand to a Black spruce and Tamarack type through natural seeding, using a two entry strip cut harvesting method.
46.6692, -92.78535
Harvest ash and plant with non-ash species to diversify stand composition in preparation of imminent Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) infestation.
47.666, -91.271
Use an interdisciplinary approach to create a large young forest patch more representative of natural disturbances in boreal landscapes.
44.944403, -93.048165
To restore native plant communities and habitats by removing both native and exotic woody vegetation as well as to utilize the removed biomass material for bioenergy.
45.313064, -93.79872
To restore native plant communities and habitats by removing both native and exotic woody vegetation as well as to utilize the removed biomass material for bioenergy.
44.551622, -92.713903
1974 harvest: Release young poletimber to accelerate growth of desired species. 2009 harvest: Maintain and enhance a diverse, multi-aged northern hardwoods stand while salvaging blowdown timber.
46.841087, -92.719485
Precommercial free thinning at age 20 to reduce aspen dominance and favor northern hardwood species.
47.13505, -94.425895
To optimize timber returns while initiating a new even-aged stand on a site that has prominent blowdown. Promote and facilitate wildlife habitat.
44.869536, -88.904822
Better understand the relationship between Carex pennsylvanica and Carex pedunculata, deer browse, and regeneration of quality northern hardwood species in a way to create future management options to promote seedling success.
47.551146, -91.16376
Multiple goals; but primarily to develop coordinated multi-landowner (USFS & MN DNR) stand management plans that integrate ecological, timber, water quality, and wildlife habitat objectives.
46.699556, -92.524694
Promote and maintain fire-dependent forested community and conduct mid-rotation site preparation through ecocultural prescribed fire.
44.695476, -92.715319
Promote regeneration of floodplain tree species and prevent conversion of site to reed canary grass. Provide wildlife habitat for the next 50 to 100 years.
43.739268, -91.207642
Salvage storm damaged trees and ensure that site is adequately regenerated to bottomland hardwoods rather than converting to reed canary grass.
46.646648, -92.650839
Use residual patches of eastern white pine within aspen stands for future natural regeneration. Aspen stand to be harvested while white pine seedlings establish.
46.43308, -91.518213
Permanent vegetation plots were established within 5 stands in Zone 1 of the Barnes Barrens Management Area (BBMA) as a way to monitor the effects of different herbicide treatments to reduce competition with jack pine while maintaining quality habitat for
47.240113, -92.13053
Convert a poor quality aspen / paper birch stand to pine.
47.00763, -93.731335
Manage for quality hardwoods and multiple age classes through release of crop trees and allowing for regeneration of red oak and paper birch through variable density thinning.
46.433207, -92.23757
Shelterwood harvest to regenerate the stand to paper birch.
47.39792, -95.55734
Natural regeneration of jack pine while maintaining a robust native plant community
44.523547, -92.435569
Regenerate a mature red oak stand to a young stand of similar composition, using natural regeneration with well-timed mechanical site preparation.
43.8077, -91.8422
Regenerate a mature oak stand to a young stand with similar composition.
47.22704, -92.10348
Use the seed tree system to naturally regenerate a mixed stand dominated by red and white pine, keeping costs low with no site prep.
46.450311, -92.418057
Use the shelterwood silviculture system to naturally regenerate red oak and carry red oak seedlings through heavy understory competition.
48.236107, -93.828197
Maintain a multi-aged stand and natural mixed pine regeneration to provide within stand structure that is lacking along this public land dominated sand ridge.
44.1426, -92.0103
Regenerate a mature oak and walnut stand to a young stand with similar composition, while improving growth and timber quality of residuals.
46.251067, -92.389309
Oak crop tree release to improve timber quality, stand health and mast production for wildlife.
87.554415, 44.50375
Regenerate a mature oak stand to a young stand with similar composition.
44.52316, -92.55608
Regenerate a mature oak stand to a young stand of similar composition using clearcut with reserves method.
45.209418, -88.360515
Promote mixed oak-pine stands for quality sawtimber and wildlife habitat associated with the Northern Dry-Mesic Forest natural community. Test various mechanical scarification techniques to create favorable seedbeds and increase oak and white pine regener
45.35, -88.433333
Cost effective and operationally feasible control of oak wilt in a forested setting.
44.860534, -89.724711
Stop the spread of an active oak wilt pocket in order to maintain oaks into the future
45.783895, -87.900753
To use root-severing trenching to control oak wilt in forested settings in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula.
44.195694, -89.466389
The objective for this treatment is an even-aged, overstory removal of red pine in order to release white pine advance regeneration.
47.19935, -92.1805
Harvest birch stand with aspen pockets while ensuring birch remains a major component of the stand.
46.761258, -92.743935
Determine best silvicultural method for paper birch regeneration.
46.680039, -92.51371
To examine the effects of tree density or spacing for crop tree management of birch stands.
47.485156, -93.360295
Use patch clearcuts in a string-of-pearls configuration to create gaps in which to plant white spruce to create mixed wood
47.55045, -93.59184
Increase within stand compositional and structural diversity by increasing conifers and non-aspen hardwoods as appropriate based on native plant community and management plan goals.
47.23524, -92.13472
To convert a poorly stocked and poor quality birch-dominated stand to pine using aerial seeding.
48.260273, -94.134583
Reforest a black spruce lowland with a local seed source.
47.05776, -92.097232
Regenerate white and red pine using a shelterwood system and controlling competition with herbicide
46.775838, -94.890726
Measure ecological recovery following stand reinitiation and site preparation
45.582931, -94.37608
Retain red and white oak as the dominant species in a mixed hardwood forest.
47.144449, -93.722215
Utilize pre-commercial thinning in a quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) stand to increase diameter growth and decrease rotation age.
44.173115, -92.008917
Regenerate a mature oak stand to a young stand with similar species makeup following a prescription of: underplanting of oak and walnut seedlings 2 to 3 years before harvest; clearcut with reserves harvest; post-sale killing of competing tree stems.
47.568207, -94.027104
Use prescribed fire to prepare the site, control beaked hazel, and expose mineral soil to favor natural regeneration of white pine and red pine, with a desired future condition of a two-aged mixed pine stand.
48.608, -95.18311
Increase biological diversity of a young jack pine stand through prescribed burning.
46.691, -92.536
Regenerate an even-aged mix of red pine and white pine using a seed tree system, augmented with low density planting of red pine
46.275026, -93.388933
Create a high quality, structurally diverse (un-even aged) hardwood forest via implementation of a variable density treatment (crop tree release / group selection harvest).
47.586677, -95.064547
Determine if a selected red pine plantation is declining in growth after a thinning.
46.702402, -92.528351
To test an experimental red pine natural regeneration system that balances economic and ecological factors.
43.782186, -91.30199
The silvicultural objective is to establish native tree cover and determine more effective methods of controlling reed canary grass.
46.084299, -92.446905
To encourage aspen regeneration through rollerchopping in a young aspen stand heavily impacted by blowdown.
47.664723, -93.262129
Use natural and artificial regeneration practices to regenerate a natural origin red pine site with characteristics that mimic a natural origin stand in structure and diversity, while maintaining red pine as the dominant species.
47.76846, -93.04353
Use natural and artificial regeneration practices to regenerate a natural origin red pine site with characteristics that mimic a natural origin stand in structure and diversity, while maintaining red pine as the dominant species.
47.666093, -92.954166
Use natural and artificial regeneration practices to regenerate a natural origin red pine site with characteristics that mimic a natural origin stand in structure and diversity, while maintaining red pine as the dominant species.
46.956389, -93.715833
To increase the quality and stocking of northern red oak and saplings at the site through the protection of bud caps to reduce browsing, and limit competitor species such as, aspen, ironwood and beaked hazelnut.
47.200157, -91.91711
Natural regeneration of paper birch by reserving mature aspen and scarifying the site with a salmon blade.
44.600222, -92.625645
Regenerate the mature portion of a lowland hardwoods stand to a young stand of similar composition and improve health and vigor of younger portion of the stand.
48.78608, -95.22047
Harvest and regenerate tamarack stands damaged by Eastern Larch Beetle (ELB).
46.614308, -93.486841
Sample reserve patches retained for legacy purposes during aspen harvests (clearcut with aggregated retention) to evaluate "old forest" attributes.
44.665304, -92.731634
Regenerate mature lowland hardwood stands to young stands of similar composition.
43.77772, -91.17246
Establish a fully stocked stand of naturally and artificially occurring floodplain forest tree species on a former hayfield now dominated by invasive reed canary grass through site preparation and direct tree seeding.
47.715497, -90.87606
Establish an even-aged mixed woods stand comprised of jack pine, aspen, paper birch, and balsam fir.
47.715497, -90.87606
Establish an even-aged mixed woods stand comprised of aspen, white spruce, balsam fir, and white pine.
47.715497, -90.87606
Establish white pine as a dominant overstory species.
46.116551, -91.3568
To investigate relative performance of species with potential to replace black ash threatened by emerald ash borer.
47.52870385, -93.99546396
Naturally regenerate a mature pine stand to a young mixed pine stand with a significant white pine component through use of prescribed burning and seed tree harvests.
43.028782, -90.842558
The goal of this harvest is to regenerate the oak/hickory type, encouraging all oak species.
44.257998, -85.779799
Objectives of this stand include a shelterwood harvest, tending of the stand via understory cutting, constructing a slash wall for deer exclusion, and evaluating the effectiveness of excluding deer and the natural regeneration success.
45.394348, -79.5639
Promote black cherry regeneration as a significant component of a tolerant hardwood stand
46.422387, -92.01315
The silvicultural objective for this area (unit 1) was a crop tree release, improvement thinning with regeneration gaps.
43.903317, -92.341258
Maintain the maple-basswood native plant community including a regenerated component of oak while retaining a diverse shrub layer and maintaining or increasing the diversity of native plants in the herbaceous layer.
46.85694, -95.35833
Uneven aged management in a 115 year old pine stand.
47.464404, -93.367368
Regenerate aspen and increase conifer component to create an even-aged, structurally diverse mixedwood stand.
47.186192, -92.049008
Regenerate red and white pine through natural seeding
48.244778, -93.5073
To regenerate jack pine after clearcutting with reserve trees, at 800 trees per acre with 95% stocking of desirable trees, 75% stocking of jack pine that is free-to-grow.
45.477079, -90.675107
To regenerate black ash and promote non-ash species.
46.691877, -92.526878
This 1984 treatment was designed to demonstrate two types of reserve management: 1) mechanical restoration of open understory treatment, as a demonstration of historical stand structure maintained by surface fire regime, and 2) no treatment.
47.410257, -95.13045
Even-aged management to produce successive crops of jack and/or red pine.
48.219279, -94.022102
Maintain white spruce component to mixed species stand dominated by aspen.
46.7, -92.5
Remove the standing dead and Eastern Larch Beetle infested tamarack trees and to thin denser areas of living tamarack trees to make them more resilient to future attacks.
43.201444, -90.66377
Transition from a two aged oak dominated stand to multi-aged northern hardwood stand
46.380555, -94.423611
Un-even aged mixed hardwood/conifer stand with a major component of oak. Protect oak seedlings from deer browse through the use of flexible mesh caps
46.417805, -92.02313
Maintain the northern hardwood timber type through an even-aged silvicultural system of shelterwood with reserves.
43.859526, -91.467463
Regenerate a mature oak stand to a young stand of similar composition.
42.50997, -89.27571
The objective for management is to preserve the bottomland hardwood stand by augmenting advance regeneration prior to overstory mortality due to emerald ash borer (EAB).
46.68904, -92.51695
Maintain diversified composition and structure for economic and ecological resilience using a clearcut with reserves system and both natural and artificial techniques to regenerate a mix of conifers and hardwoods.
46.442952, -92.437795
Develop a more structurally diverse red pine stand while increasing opportunities for natural regeneration while maintaining an economically feasible timber harvest
43.907925, -92.340917
Establish a mixed hardwood forest with strong walnut and oak components on a former agricultural field.
46.203202, -94.492236
Establish or maintain uneven aged pine-mixed hardwood stands with a significant white pine component using natural regeneration.
47.798524, -90.813093
Maintain and enhance pine patch by promoting spatial and vertical structure common to older fire-dependent pine forests. Decrease the potential for crown fire and reintroduce the role of disturbance.
45.831715, -94.653849
To use a two-cut shelterwood system to maintain a significant oak presence in a future mixed hardwood stand.
47.306, -94.735
Even aged management of Red Pine. This treatment tested the effect on seedling growth of adding N to Velpar applied for competition control.
48.753137, -95.333581
Harvest standing jack pine and aerial seed back to jack pine with mechanical site prep.
45.914574, -93.59457
Re-establish a robust, self-sustaining component of white pine in a mesic hardwood stand.
46.691645, -92.533752
To reserve mature white pine for legacy and open growing space for a new cohort of white pine.
47.243077, -92.121147
To naturally regenerate white and red pine under a shelterwood system using two site prep methods: prescribed burn and salmon blade.
47.560911, -93.24452
Release jack pine from hardwood competition.
46.678469, -79.26407
To promote yellow birch regeneration as a significant component of a hardwood stand
47.077938, -92.247156
Increase yellow birch stocking, maintain paper birch component, and expand basswood while limiting aspen expansion.

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Pennsylvania sedge and ironwood in a northern hardwoods stand.
Competing Vegetation
Eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe.
Eastern Dwarf Mistletoe
EAB emerging from an ash tree.
Emerald Ash Borer
Prolific buckthorn.
Invasive Plants
A stressed red pine canopy.
An adult two-lined chestnut borer.
Twolined Chestnut Borer
Protective tubing to prevent browse damage.
Adult eastern larch beetle.
Eastern Larch Beetle
Forest tent caterpillar.
Forest Tent Caterpillar
A white pine shelterwood.
Ips beetle galleries on red pine.
Pine Bark Beetles
White pine blister rust.
White Pine Blister Rust


Diplodia on jack pine.
Eastern spruce budworm
Eastern Spruce Budworm
Heterobasidion root disease.
Heterobasidion Root Disease
Oak wilt symptomatic red oak leaf.
Oak Wilt
Spongy moth egg masses in tree crevice.
Spongy Moth
White pine weevil-damaged top.
White Pine Weevil